1-A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding “-ing”
Reading helps you learn English.
(S) (VERB) (OBJECT)
Her favorite hobby is reading.
(SUBJECT) (Verb) (COMPLEMENT)
I enjoy reading.
(S) (V) (O)
2-Gerunds can be made negative by adding “not.”
The best thing for your health is not smoking.
He prefers not speaking.
3-In the subject position mostly gerunds are used.
Learning is important.
Dancing is enjoyable.
4- Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.
They enjoyed working on the boat.
5- There are many “go + gerund” expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities
I go swimming every weekend.
6- Gerunds are used after prepositions.
He is thinking about studying abroad.
Sandy is scared of flying.
They admitted to committing the crime.
Verb +Preposition + Gerund
We concentrated on doing well.
7- Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John’s
I enjoyed their singing.
She understood his saying no to the offer.
Sam resented Debbie’s coming late to the dinner.
We discussed Mary’s behaving so rude.
Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.